Mülheim an der Ruhr in the Industrial Age:
A Timeline

1774-1780 Frederick the Great, King of Prussia, orders to make the river Ruhr navigable. An intensive traffic in coal develops, making Mülheim the busiest river port in Europe.

1791 Johannes Caspar Troost builds a cotton spinning mill, the second one on the European continent.

1808 Mülheim becomes a town. The population is under 15,000.

1811 Johann Dinnendahl founds a "mechanical workshop" in which steam engines are built.

1820 The Dinnendahl brothers build the first iron works (later "Friedrich-Wilhelms-Hütte").

1829 A new outlay for the town centre, based on a rectangular pattern, is proposed but never built.

1839 The market place is transferred from the church hill to its present site; a town hall is built there.

1839 Aktienstrasse is built as a toll road between the coal mines at Essen-Borbeck and the river port at Mülheim.

1840 The coal mine in Mülheim-Dümpten is the biggest in the Ruhr district. The Ruhr is the busiest river in Europe.

1842 The first bridge across the river is built.

1845 A zinc smelting plant is started.

1850 Mülheim has six large coal mines.

1862 The railway reaches Mülheim: The Bergisch-Märkische Eisenbahn from Duisburg to Essen is built.

1866 The Rheinische Eisenbahn builds a railway line through Speldorf and Broich which joins the existing on at today's central station.

1871 August Thyssen starts his iron and mining business which later becomes one of the world's leading steel companies.

1873 The zinc plant closes after years of controversy over the pollution it causes.

1876 A third railway is built along the Ruhr valley from Mülheim-Styrum to Kettwig.

1890 Freight transport on the Ruhr is given up.

1897 The first tram line is built.

1900 Large estates for miners are built, e.g. Mausegatt and Rosenblumendelle.

1908 The population rises to more than 100,000.

c. 1910 Tanneries and leather factories are erected on the left bank of the river.

1914 An institute for coal research (today called "Max-Planck-Institut für Kohlenforschung") is founded.

1916 The present-day town hall is erected.

1926 The Stadthalle (civic hall) is built on the left bank of the river.

1927 The present-day river port is opened.

1929 The villages of Ickten and Selbeck are incorporated into the town.

1943 The town centre is destroyed in an air raid.

1966 The last coal mine is closed.

1970 With more than 190,000 inhabitants, the town's population reaches its peak.

1973 The Rhein-Ruhr-Zentrum, a large shopping mall, opens on the site of Zeche Humboldt, one of the old coal mines.

1975 The village of Mintard is incorporated into the town.

1977 The light rail line between Essen and Mülheim is opened.

1998 The light rail tunnel under the town centre and the Ruhr is opened.